0 to 100 refugees; Everything you need to know about asylum and asylum seeking
Due to your frequent questions, dear companions, we decided to write this article. Questions that are very frequent and, of course, have a significant impact on the future of the people who ask. But the most important thing about asylum is that asylum is not a way to migrate and build a better life, but a new chance to survive. In fact, asylum is for saving lives and thoughts, not earning more money or living in an advanced country and building people’s dreams. With this brief explanation, we invite you to join us in this article from the Aryan Community News Agency.
What is refugee and who is called a refugee?
According to the 1951 convention in Geneva and then its implementation in 1954, it states that a refugee is someone who is in his country for various reasons such as: religion, race, nationality, different sexual orientations, political thoughts and opinions, membership and belonging to groups a particular social group, be subjected to serious violence in such a way that it is feared that he will lose his life and property. According to this law, people who have violated human rights or war criminals cannot use this right. First, this convention was approved for European war victims after World War II, but in 1967, the boundaries of this law were changed and expanded to include the whole of humanity. Refugees are people who have fled war, violence, conflict or persecution and crossed an international border to find safety in another country. They often have to leave their homes, possessions and loved ones and walk a difficult path.
Therefore, any person is afraid of returning to his country, or is stateless in the country of his previous residence, because of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a certain social group, or because of torture, war, conditions Inhuman and degrading treatment has escaped and is in serious danger, you can apply for asylum in asylum-seeking countries. The asylum-seeking country examines the person’s case individually by examining the evidence and documents provided by the person, and if it finds his statements acceptable, grants him asylum. In this way, the refugee will enjoy the citizenship rights of that country and can finally live as a permanent citizen of that country.
The asylum process is very complicated and its difficulties are increasing day by day. Although the criteria for recognizing a refugee is based on the UN Convention on the Status of Refugees, ultimately this asylum grant depends on the decision of the relevant departments of each country. The internal laws of the countries are very different and two people with the exact same problem may get different answers in two different countries.
The United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (Geneva Convention) is an international convention that defines who is a refugee and defines the rights of refugees and the responsibilities of member states towards refugees. According to this convention, not all people have the right to asylum, such as war criminals or people who violate human rights, who are denied this right.
According to the Convention on the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who has been seriously persecuted in his or her country of origin for one of the following reasons:
- race (human)
- sexual orientation
- Belonging to a certain social group
- Political opinions
What is the difference between asylum seeker and refugee?
When a person applies for asylum in a country, the period of time (several months or years) that is in the process and his asylum status is checked, he is considered an asylum seeker. In fact, from the time of applying for asylum until receiving asylum, the applicant is an asylum seeker.
After the necessary investigations have been carried out by the relevant departments and asylum has been granted to him, the person leaves the status of asylum seeker and becomes a refugee.
The salary of the asylum seeker is very low compared to the refugee. In most refugee-accepting countries, a refugee has almost the same rights as citizens of that country. This is despite the fact that the asylum seeker has very limited rights, and sometimes even the few rights are denied to him. Unfortunately, the relevant departments and even the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and all the bodies involved in the issue of refugees are not accountable to any superior institution, and as a result, the refugee does not have any claimable rights. Although he has rights on paper, in terms of legal weaknesses regarding the rights of asylum seekers, it is almost impossible to achieve the same minimum rights. At the same time, a refugee can complain to the judicial authorities and demand his rights, just like a citizen of that country, if his rights are violated.
What is an asylum case?
The asylum case is actually the problem of the asylum seeker in the country of origin. The problem that caused his life to be in danger and because of that problem he had to leave his country. All the events that happened to force the asylum seeker to leave his country are called refugee case.
Types of asylum cases
Naturally, the problems that force a person to leave his country and seek refuge in another country are different. Some have religious problems, others have political problems, some have social problems, and some have had to leave their country because of the war.
In recent years, most Iranian people have used this method to apply for asylum and have named it as the best asylum case. Because according to Iran’s Islamic law, if a person leaves Islam, he is considered an apostate and the sentence is death. Also, some religious sects such as Baha’i in Iran can present this type of refugee case.
Some people are harassed and sometimes tortured because of their political opinions, protests against the regime in their country.
Some people apply for asylum in another country due to their sexuality and non-recognition of their orientation, for example homosexuals.
Many asylum seekers all over Europe, especially in Germany, have these types of cases. In recent years, the civil wars in Syria have caused many people to seek refuge in Europe and other countries from their insecure country.
Many people use this type of case because of the social pressures in their country and the hardships of life. They must be able to prove that they lived in difficult conditions.
In some countries, people are unfortunately harassed by the government and the minority people of their country because of their race and skin color.
The best asylum case
The question that we are often asked is what is the best asylum case? We must say that the essence of this question is wrong. Because the asylum seeker steps on this ups and downs road with a problem that has really happened to him. On the other hand, no case has legal priority over another case. Of course, some cases are easier to prove. For example, when Syrian refugees went to Europe, proving that they are at risk of death in their country did not require special explanations because this issue was clear, but if an Iranian applies for asylum with a political or religious case, he must prove it. which is really exposed to this danger.
Therefore, there is no best asylum case. In fact, asylum is not given as a case, but the details and statements of the asylum seeker as well as the general conditions of the country of origin and of course the policies of the receiving country are decisive. In general, for several years now, the religious case has been more acceptable to Iranians, although this case must also be justified for the decision-making authority.
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, located in Geneva, Switzerland. This office was established on December 14, 1950 to protect and support refugees and assist in their return or resettlement.
This organization was created as a replacement for the International Refugee Organization, and before that, the United Nations General Directorate for Rescue and Rehabilitation. So far, the Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded to this organization twice in 1954 and 1981. The duty of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees is to lead and coordinate international activities to protect and solve the problems of refugees around the world. The primary goal of the organization is to protect the rights and health of refugees. This organization strives to ensure respect for the rights of refugees and their health in other countries, their voluntary return to their country, their resettlement in a third country, etc. in accordance with international law.
On January 1, 2003, this organization announced in a report that a population of 20,556,781 people, including about 5.5 million people in Europe and North America, are covered by it.
Since 2004, the agency has helped around 50 million people rebuild their lives. This organization with a headquarters of about 5,000 people in more than 120 countries is active in helping about 20 million people.
In which countries can you become a refugee?
All member countries of the 1967 treaty accept asylum seekers according to their obligations. Of course, the domestic laws of countries play a significant role in granting asylum to asylum seekers. For example, Turkey only grants asylum to people who have applied for asylum in Turkey from Europe and grants the right to permanent residence in Turkey. Therefore, any person who applies for asylum from other countries in Turkey, if his asylum is accepted, will temporarily stay in Turkey until he can be transferred to other refugee-accepting countries in the future. This procedure applies to many member countries of the treaty, which have different acceptance conditions according to their domestic laws.
Where is the best country for asylum?
America, Canada, Germany, England, Australia, Austria, Italy, Finland, Portugal, Spain and Greece are among the countries that host the most refugees. has increased in these countries and has changed the balance and life of people in these countries.
- There are 26 million refugees worldwide.
- Half of the world’s refugees are children.
- 85% of refugees are hosted in developing countries.
- In 2019, more than two-thirds of all refugees came from just five refugee-accepting countries: Syria, Venezuela, Afghanistan, South Sudan, and Myanmar. Syria has been the main source of refugees since 2014, and at the end of 2019, 6.6 million Syrian refugees were living in 126 countries around the world.
- In 2019, only half of the world’s refugees were resettled. During the last decade, more than one million refugees were resettled, while 3.9 million refugees returned to their countries.
Unfortunately, in recent years, the number of asylum seekers has increased significantly, and countries like Turkey, which used to be a place of temporary accommodation for refugees, have become swamps for asylum seekers. Asylum seekers and refugees have been in this country without assignment for many years, and some of them have been waiting for assignment for more than 10 years.
What is the asylum process like?
The asylum process starts when the asylum seeker arrives at the destination country and requests asylum. Of course, reaching the destination country is a risky and expensive route that involves many financial and life risks. Anyway, after the asylum seeker arrives at the destination country, he submits his asylum request to the relevant authorities. According to the laws of the destination country, the refugee is settled in the camp or can rent a house by himself. Also, the asylum seeker must appear in the interview session (or sessions) and present his reasons and documents for his claim. The distance between the registration of the asylum application and the interview is different in different countries. Also, the number and hours of the interview sessions also vary according to each person’s case. After receiving the talks, documents and arguments of the asylum seeker, necessary investigations are carried out by the relevant authorities and the answer is informed to the asylum seeker.
If the answer is yes, he will be allowed to live (just like the citizens of that country). Otherwise, if his request is rejected, there is a possibility that he may appeal, and this process also requires time and varies according to the country of destination.
If a person cannot convince the responsible authorities that his life is in danger in the country of origin, a decision will be made regarding him according to the country where he is present. Some countries deport the asylum seeker and some even send him to the country of origin.
In general, the asylum process is very different in different countries. But in any case, in the opportunity given to the asylum seeker, he must prove that his life is in danger in the country of origin.
What is resettlement?
Resettlement is applied in countries whose domestic laws do not allow the permanent presence of refugees. For example, in Turkey, only people from Europe can live forever and get permanent residence in Turkey if they get asylum.
In general, resettlement is a solution that enables refugees to be transferred from the country where they have applied for asylum to another country where they can receive support and assistance.
Resettlement is not considered a right. Also, resettlement is not a process that can be done based on a person’s request. Each year, little resettlement capacity is available to UNHCR, and only a small number of refugees meet the strict criteria to send their cases to refugee-receiving countries. Less than 1% of refugees worldwide are resettled.
Granting refugee status to a person does not mean that the refugee will definitely be resettled.
What is Dublin?
The Dublin Regulation states that asylum seekers must declare asylum in the first safe country they enter and do not have the right to choose another country. Only minors are not included in this law and they will be sent back to that country only when they have applied for asylum in other countries. A person who has fingerprints in one or more European countries will be sent back to the first country where they have fingerprints in each country where they apply for asylum.